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Referencing: The Harvard System

 Essay regarding Referencing: The Harvard Program

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Centre for Excellence in mastering and Teaching

Referencing: The Harvard System

Use this sheet to help you:

• FollowtheHarvardreferencingconvention • CiteonlinesourcesusingtheHarvardstyle

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• • • Whatisthedifferencebetweenin-textandbiobliographicalcitations? HowdoestheHarvardSystemdifferfromtheAPA? Howshouldyouciteinternetsources?

Thispublicationcanbecitedas: Revealed, W. M. (2007), TheHarvard System, CentreforExcellenceinLearningandTeaching, Faculty ofBusinessandEconomics, theUniversityofMelbourne. http://fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt Further credit: Beaumont, To. (content alterations and editing), Pesina, L. (designandlayout). A lot of, orallofthematerialinthishelpsheet, appearin: Martin Davies(2011), StudySkillsforInternationalPostgraduateStudents. Basingstoke, UK.: Palgrave, MacMillan. ISBN: 140399580X.

fbe. unimelb. edu. au/celt

The Harvard System

TheHarvardsystemofreferencingisverysimilartotheAPAsystemofreferencing(see CELT Booklet: Standard Referencing Making use of the APA System)buttherearesubtledifferencesin howthereferencelistiswritten:

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• Ituses" and”not" & ”betweenmultipleauthors • Thepublishers'nameappearsbeforetheplaceofpublication, separatedbyacomma(in • Theyearofpublicationneednotbeenclosedinparentheses(…)thoughitisonsome • Allmajoritemsarefollowedbycommasandnotfullstops(asintheAPA) • " pp”forinclusivepagenumbersaregivenforjournalarticlesinHarvard, butnotAPA. versionsofHarvard APAitisplaceofpublicationthenpublisherseparatedbyacolon": ”)

Test Harvard Citation

Abrami, P. C., d'Appollonia, S. andRosenfield, S. 97, ‘TheDimensionalityofStudent RatingofInstruction; WhatweKnowandWhatweDoNot', inHigherEducation: HandbookonTheoryandResearch, volume. II, (edSmart, J. C. )AgathonPress, NewYork. Abrami, L. C., Dickens, W. L., Leventhal, M. andPerry, Ur. P. 1980, 'DoTeacherStandards forAssigningGradesAffectStudentEvaluationsInstruction?, 'JournalofEducational Psychology, vol. seventy two, pp. 107-118. Boex, L. F. 2k, 'IdentifyingtheAttributesofEffectiveEconomicsInstructors: AnAnalysisof StudentEvaluationofInstructorData', JournalofEconomicsEducation, vol. 31, no . Summer time, pp. 211-226. Braskamp, T. A. andOry, J. C. 1994, Assessingfacultywork: Enhancingindividualand institutionalperformance, Jossey-Bass, SanFrancisco. Cashin, Watts. E. 1988, ‘StudentRatingsofTeaching: ASummaryoftheResearch', inIDEAPaper, volume. 20, CenterforFacultyEvaluationandDevelopment, Manhattan, Kansas: Kansas StateUniversity. Cashin, T. E. 1990, ‘StudentsdoRateDifferentAcademicFieldsDifferently', inStudents

RatingsofInstruction: IssuesforImprovingPractice: NewDirectionsforTeaching andLearning, vol. 43, (edsTheall, Meters. andFranklin, L. )Jossey-Bass, SanFrancisco, pp. 113121.

Cashin, T. E. 1992, 'StudentRatings: TheNeedforComparativeData, 'InstructionalEvaluation andFacultyDevelopment, vol. 12, pp. 1-6. Feldman, T. A. 1989a, 'TheAssociationbetweenStudentRatingsofSpecificInstructional DimensionsandStudentAchievement: RefiningandExtendingtheSynthesisofData fromMultisectionValidityStudies, 'ResearchinHigherEducation, volume. 30, pp. 583-645. Feldman, K. A. 1989b, 'InstructionalEffectivenessofCollegeTeachersasJudgedbyTeachers themselves, CurrentandFormerStudentsColleagues, AdministratorsandExternal (Neutral)Observers, 'ResearchinHigherEducation, volume. 30, pp. 583-645.

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fbe. unimelb. edu. au/celt

The Harvard System

Itisimportanttorealisethattherearetwokindsofcitationsneeded, whetheroneuses HarvardorAPA. Theseareintextcitationsandbibliographic(orreferencelist)citations. Botharenecessary....

Citations: For the bibliographic reference, you identify by surname of author (if available) as common. If there is no author mentioned, the following conventions apply. Include the following in this order:

• ‘Name of article/page' (This is the page you are citing from, not necessarily the • • • •

" index” or main page) year in brackets (…) Name of journal/main website page (in italics) WEB ADDRESS: http://etc.--in ROUND brackets— parentheses, (…) date of creation of site e. g., 14/5/01

ADDITIONALLY: • Utilized: your date of use of the page in SQUARE brackets.[…]

TAKE NOTE: The date of use of the page is usually different from date of creation, and is therefore important for accuracy given that pages are continually updated. at the. g., ‘The Department of Management', (2001) Faculty of Business and Economics, (URL: http:// and so on... ) 14/3/01[Accessed: 30/4/01]. TAKE NOTE: URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator, which identifies the source of the material. This begins with a code for the type of access involved (" http://”, " ftp: //”, " gopher: //”, etc). If you wanted to cite the document we are referring to above it would be: Quinion, M., (1999), Citing Online Sources, (URL: http://www.quinion.com/words/articles/citation.htm)[Accessed: 10 March 2001]. Make sure you break the lines in a sensible place and never introduce hyphens. NOTE: In terms of managing reference information it is advisable to begin compiling your reference list as soon as you start reading. Add everything you read. Delete as necessary later. Using the Harvard system is made easy by a specific computer program designed for the purpose, e. g. EndNote. This is available for free for students. http://lib. unimelb. edu. au/endnote/index. html

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