Multinational Cost of Capital

 Multinational Cost of Capital Composition


International Cost of Capital

Capital Structure, Risk as well as the Cost of Capital for International Companies (1713 words)


Table of Contents


Literature Review2

Capital Framework, Risk and the Cost of Capital for International Companies2 Critique to the job and the upstream-downstream hypothesis2 Conclusion2



" In theory, MNEs must be in a better position than their home counterparts to support higher debt ratios mainly because their cash flows happen to be diversified internationally. ” (Eiteman, et 's., 2013, p. 386). However , recent empirical studies have found a different bottom line. The following will be presented evidences found in the literature assessment that show that it is never that firms reduce their risks and consequently the cost of capital when internationalize. Domestic organizations can indeed possess lower risk than multinationals. Elements as the host country and the companies' internationalization level should be likewise analysed.

Materials Review

Capital Structure, Risk and the Cost of Capital intended for Multinational Businesses Studies about multinational capital structure have got pointed in opposite guidelines, sometimes exhibiting that multinationals are more delinquent than domestic companies and occasionally that domestics are more delinquent than multinationals. The first researches were conducted with United States firms and confirmed that multinationals from this country have reduce debt proportions than their particular local equivalent. Another selection of more recent research in multinational companies operating out of countries such as France, Canada and Brazil has pointed out that multinational by these countries have higher debt ratios than their particular domestic peers. Although of paradox effects, a plausible explanation might be found in the Reeb and Kwok (2000) work. The authors formulated the speculation called upstream-downstream which evidence that when a multinational is usually headquartered towards a more stable economic system and extends internationally to less stable economies, such as the case of studies with United States' companies, the bankruptcy risk of these multinationals can enhance, which boosts the debt price and inhibits further personal debt of these businesses. So the even more internationalized are these companies, tend to become lower all their debt amounts. On the other hand, businesses whose headquarters are in countries with less stable economies, which have features including financial constraints and larger systemic hazards, to internationalize can lessen their bankruptcy risk and thus may be more leveraged than their home-based peers. Therefore, for these businesses the greater the degree of internationalization, the greater the debt. It is impossible to deny the theoretical contribution of Kwok and Reeb (2000) function and scientific contributions that validate the upstream-downstream hypothesis offered by the recent job of Saito and Hiramoto (2010), Mittoo and Zhang (2008) and Singh and Nejadmalayeri (2004). Such studies make up the newest evidence on the subject and are relevant in understanding the companies possess capital constructions (measured by simply total personal debt, short and long term) different based on the higher and also the lower risk they will incur to go abroad. Hence, the speculation upstream-downstream can explain the contradictory data, one important theory used to understand the multinationals debt and cost of capital. The incentive pertaining to studies about multinational capital structure emerge from the fact the fact that multinationals, in contrast to domestic companies have to deal with better institutional variability because that they act both in home and outside the country. Businesses dedicated to internationalization activities have got higher requirements for loans compared with corporations that are limited to their home markets, and can mix up their risk among several markets (Shapiro, 1978). Thereby, it was thought that multinational businesses should have higher leverage in comparison to...

References: Burgman, T. A., 1996. An Empirical Study of Multinational Business Capital Composition. Journal of International Business Studies, 27(3), pp. 553-570.

Chen, C. J. P., Cheng, C. S. A., He, T. & Betty, J., 97. An investigation in the relationship between international activities. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(3), pp. 563-577.

Eiteman, Deb. K., Stonehill, A. I actually. & Moffett, M. L., 2013. Multinational Business Fund. 13th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Kwok, C. C. Y. & Reeb, D. Meters., 2000. Internationalization and company risk: An upstream-downstream hypothesis. Journal of International Organization Studies, 31(4), pp. 611-629.

Lee, E. C. & Kwok, C. C. Con., 1988. International Corporations or Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure. Journal of International Organization Studies, 19(2), pp. 195-217.

Mittoo, U. R. & Zhang, Z., 2008. The administrative centre structure of multinational companies: Canadian compared to US data. Journal of Corporate Financing, 14(5), pp. 706-720.

Saito, R. & Hiramoto, At the., 2010. Overseas activity effects and capital structure: Brazilian evidence. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de AdministraciГіn, 45(1), pp. 59-75.

Shapiro, A. C., 1978. Financial structure and cost of capital in the multinational corporation. Record of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 13(2), pp. 211-226.

Singh, M. & Nejadmalayeri, A., 2004. Internationalization, capital composition, and costof capital: Evidence from People from france corporations. Diary of International Financial, 14(2), pp. 153-169.

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